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Hubert H. Humphrey Digitization Project

This is the ninth installment of our NHPRC funded project to digitize Hubert H. Humphrey's speech texts. This month we focus on the first half of 1968, a year of great challenge for Vice President Humphrey and the nation.

Hubert H. Humphrey, circa 1968


"In January 1968 there were 492,900 American men and women at war in Vietnam. Nearly seventeen thousand of their compatriots had already died there. President Johnson had only 48 per cent approval in the Gallup Poll, Gene McCarthy had announced for the presidency, and Bob Kennedy, waiting in the wings, had not" (Education of a Public Man, p. 264).

TV Interview with United Press International, February 1968On January 30, 1968 the Vietnamese New Year celebration of Tet was encroached upon by a massive attack from the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong against the South Vietnamese and American forces. The administration, continually promoting an optimistic view of the war, experienced a huge loss of credibility. In this TV interview with the United Press International Humphrey answered questions from the panel about the nature of this brutal offensive and the administration's reaction to it, saying that he sensed a "steeling of the American attitude, that is a fixing of our desire" to see the war through.

National Housing Conference Dinner, March 4, 1968In February of 1968 the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, commonly known as the Kerner Commission, released its report concluding that frustration and lack of economic opportunity were the cause of the 1967 riots. It included the famous phrase "our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white -- separate and unequal." Humphrey confronted these findings in this speech at a National Housing Conference dinner on March 4th. He tried to explain how the administration had actually been doing a lot to combat this huge domestic problem, but that it also needed support at the neighborhood level.

Issues and Answers, ABC-TV, March 17, 1968In March Bobby Kennedy joined the presidential race after Eugene McCarthy took 46 percent of the New Hampshire primary vote against Lyndon Johnson. In this ABC TV program Humphrey was questioned about the administration's answer to the Kennedy candidacy and whether or not President Johnson would run again. Humphrey replied that he thought it highly likely the president would run for another term.

By the end of the month, however, Humphrey received confidential information from the President that Johnson would deliver a speech the night of March 31st during which he might possibly announce that he would not be seeking another term. Left out of the loop, Humphrey would not know until he could listen to the speech, which inconveniently occurred during the middle of a United States Embassy dinner in Mexico City with President Gustavo Diaz Ortiz.

Humphrey recalled later that when Johnson announced he would indeed not seek another term, Humphrey's wife Muriel "was very shaken and emotionally upset. To say the least, I felt the same way. I resolved however to say little or nothing except to commend the President in my toast at the dinner" (Hubert Humphrey: A Biography, p. 322).


In a Gardner Cowles dinner, April 2, 1968speech at the Gardner Cowles dinner a few days after Johnson's announcement, Humphrey explained in greater detail how the President had equivocated over two endings for his March 31 speech: one that proposed a limit to the bombing; another that announced his decision not to seek re-election. At the last moment, Johnson realized he could not run for office and try to end the war in Vietnam at the same time.

National Alliance of Businessmen, Long Island, April 5, 1968A few days later, on the 4th of April, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. The next day, at the National Alliance of Businessmen meeting Humphrey ended his remarks by saying "If we do recognize the testament in the life and death of Martin Luther King -- if we do rededicate ourselves to the mission of healing the torment of our poor and hungry, our deprived and our illiterate -- then truly this tragedy will be remembered, not as the moment when America lost her faith, but as the moment when America found her conscience."

Announcement of candidacy, April 27, 1968Humphrey had been thinking about announcing his candidacy for the presidency. After King's death, however, all campaigning stopped. On April 27th Humphrey finally declared his candidacy in this carefully written twenty minute speech. It was during this speech that Humphrey, excited about the support of the crowd and filled with a sense of personal triumph at finally reaching this height in his career, added the words: "here we are the way politics ought to be in America, the politics of happiness, politics of purpose, politics of joy." This positive attitude was not meant to detract from the severe realities of Dr. King's assassination, domestic rioting in United States cities, or the casualties and uncertainty of the ten-year Vietnam war. The media, however, took this phrase out of context and berated Humphrey for being out of touch with current events.

Humphrey had decided not to enter any primaries, though he made many speeches during his travels, sometimes even at events that included his two rivals. McCarthy and Kennedy, meanwhile, competed for similar voters in primary states, and allowed Humphrey to focus on delegates in non-primary states and the Southerners, who were not swayed by either of his rivals. Kennedy had won the Nebraska primary by a majority but then lost Oregon to McCarthy. Since no Kennedy had ever lost an election before, it was a terrible blow and imperative that Kennedy win in California. Humphrey stayed away from California during the primary and was preparing to give a speech in Colorado Springs when he heard about the assassination of Bobby Kennedy after his primary win.

Senate statement: Death of R. F. Kennedy, June 6, 1968Humphrey refused to give his speech the next day. Instead he flew back to the east coast for the funeral and internment and gave this short speech in the Senate on June 6th. He did not campaign for two weeks and was terribly shaken by the death of another Kennedy, as was his friend and adversary Eugene McCarthy.

As Humphrey's biographer describes: "that period from Kennedy's death to the convention in August, this most voluble of American politicians had almost nothing to say about the issues that troubled his fellow citizens most . . . He was a man in the middle: tied to a president who dominated him, pulled by all the forces on the Democratic left that demanded a candidate who stood for anything different from Nixon" (Hubert Humphrey: A Biography, p. 341-342).



These speech texts, as well as all of Humphrey's speeches from 1941-1967 are linked to the inventory of his Speech Text Files. More of Humphrey's speeches will be made available each month throughout this project. Look for the second half of 1968 in June!


National Historical Publications and Records Commission



This project was awarded the support of a $46,000 grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) administered by the National Archives.

Learn more about how the NHPRC helps preserve records of enduring national historical value and promotes their public access and interpretation through archival and documentary programs.


New and Updated Finding Aids - April 2013

Name/Abstract File No.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of Counties gr00154
Annual or other periodic reports on the examination of the financial affairs of counties by the State Auditor. The reports contain comments and recommendations regarding fiscal procedures; summaries of financial conditions, in general and with respect to fund transactions, investments, bonded indebtedness, and federal revenue sharing; balance sheets and supporting statements; classifications of receipts and disbursements; notes to financial statements; summaries of fixed assets, taxable valuations, and tax levies and returns; and names of officials and verifications of official bonds. In some cases, the State Auditor prepared a management and compliance letter in lieu of a full audit report. Some reports for 1970-1972 were done by the State Auditor's predecessor, the Public Examiner.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of County Hospitals and Nursing Homes gr00155
Annual or other periodic reports on the examination of the financial affairs of county hospitals and nursing homes by the state auditor.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of Regional Organizations gr00157
Annual or other periodic reports on the examination of the financial affairs of regional development commissions and regional service organizations by the state auditor.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of Relief Associations gr00158
Annual or other periodic reports on the examination of the financial affairs of police and fire fighters' relief associations.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Hospital Districts gr00162
Annual financial reports, independent audit reports, and/or balance sheets submitted to the State Auditor by hospitals, hospital districts, and nursing homes. Some reports cover more than one year.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Housing and Redevelopment Authorities gr00163
Financial statements, audit reports, balance sheets (often on U.S. Housing and Urban Development Department forms), or other annual financial reports of housing and redevelopment authorities in various Minnesota communities. A few county-level HRAs are included. Most reports cover the calendar year or quarter-year, but some are for other time periods.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Miscellaneous Governmental Units gr00481
Financial statements, audit reports, balance sheets, and related documentation summarizing annual receipts and expenditures of area mental health programs, park and recreation boards, public libraries, cable communications boards, retirement associations, the Duluth-Auditorium Administration Board, the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, the State Armory Building Commission, and other miscellaneous agencies. A few were created by the State Auditor or its predecessor, the Public Examiner.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Sanitary and Sewer Districts gr00482
Financial reports of area or regional sanitary/sewerage districts, most notably the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission and the Western Lake Superior Sanitary District.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Transportation and Port Authorities gr00164
Financial and audit reports of airport commissions, port authorities, regional railroad authorities, and transit authorities. Some are reports by the State Auditor.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Watershed Districts and Water Management Organizations gr00484
Financial reports and independent audit reports for watershed districts, conservation commissions (for lakes and waterways), flood control commissions, lake improvement districts, and other water management organizations. Annual operating reports are often included, also or instead. In a few instances, the audit reports are by the State Auditor.
Auditor: An Inventory of Its Warrants gr00500
Warrants constituting a detailed record of most state expenditures during the period when the state's physical and operational infrastructure was being developed, including itemizations of goods or services received with each transaction.
Chimera Theatre Company: An Inventory of Its Papers at the Minnesota Historical Society 00269
Correspondence and financial files, box office and marketing files, production files, reviews and programs, staff and production photographs and videotapes, press releases, clippings, and scrapbooks documenting a community theater formed in 1969 and disbanded in 1987.
Delta Kappa Gamma Society International. Tau State (Minn.): An Inventory of Its Records 00171
Executive board minutes; correspondence; biographical sketches; membership directories and yearbooks; committee files; conventions; historical materials; newsletters; reports; scrapbooks; local chapter files; and photographs; documenting Tau State, the Minnesota chapter of the Delta Kappa Gamma international honor society for women educators.
Health Department: An Inventory of Its Delayed Death Certificates gr00708
Death certificates and, occasionally, other documents containing information on deaths and stillbirths that occurred in Minnesota during the years 1887-1954 (bulk 1908-1915). They were filed with the Health Department after the official death certificates for the year of death had been arranged, assigned consecutive certificate numbers, and closed to additions.
Sylvia D. Hoffert: An Inventory of Her Jane Grey Swisshelm Research Files 01090
Photocopies of newspaper clippings, legal documents, and correspondence (1840-1894) from various archival repositories relating to journalist, newspaper publisher, abolitionist, and women's rights advocate Jane Grey Swisshelm, as well as a card file calendar containing information about newspapers published by Swisshelm or with which she was associated in St. Cloud, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, and Washington, D.C. The material was compiled by historian Sylvia D. Hoffert in the course of researching her biography Jane Grey Swisshelm: an unconventional life (2004).
Hubert H. Humphrey: An Inventory of His Speech Text Files 00442
Hubert H. Humphrey Copies of Humphrey's speeches, in varying formats including notes, drafts, speaking texts, printed copies, and transcripts. Also present are excerpts, sample speeches, and incomplete indexes and checklists.
T. W. Ingersoll: An Inventory of His Papers 01093
Papers of T. W. Ingersoll, primarily from the period he lived in Buffalo, Minnesota after selling his St. Paul photography business.
Legislative Auditor: Financial Audits Division: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports gr00705
Audit reports conducted annually by the Financial Audit Division to assess the state's major financial operations and determine whether the state's financial statements comply with generally accepted accounting principles.
Legislative Auditor: Program Evaluation Division: An Inventory of Its Published Records and Reports gr00704
Print and near-print materials documenting various activities and duties of the division.
Legislature: House of Representatives: An Inventory of Its House Bills gr00119
The original house file of bills acted upon in the house; also includes bills for special sessions, resolutions, and concurrent resolutions. The bill files include any successive versions and engrossments.
Legislature: Senate: An Inventory of Its Senate Bills gr00707
Senate bills and resolutions, including engrossments. The 1987-1988 bills are missing.
Manuscript Biographies Collections: An Inventory of the Collection P939
An assortment of manuscript items or groups of related items whose value is largely biographical. They include biographical and autobiographical sketches and notes, wedding and baptismal certificates, appointments, letters, brief reminiscences, school records, clippings, memorial statements, and other personal memorabilia.
Minnesota Coalition of Organizations for Sex Equity in Education: An Inventory of Its Records 01091
Minutes, correspondence, bylaws, scattered annual reports, and subject files of an organization established in September 1978 to study and promote gender equity in Minnesota's public schools.
Corrine E. Pearson: An Inventory of Her Papers 01092
Pearson's research files about the Hmong people and records of her Hmong Handwork store, a Saint Paul consignment shop selling Hmong needlecraft. Some materials are in the Hmong language.
Pennington County: County Court: An Inventory of Its County Court Records gr00702
Record of appearances, documents filed, and actions taken with regard to each case brought before each day's session of the court, primarily divorces, child support cases, and paternity cases. A few adoption cases are included.
Pennington County: District Court: An Inventory of Its Civil and Criminal Registers of Actions gr00698
Registers of action for civil (1910-1981) and criminal (1911-1981) cases. Each entry may include the calendar (case file) number, names of the parties in the case, papers filed, names of persons subpoenaed, date files, fees, and remarks.
Pennington County: District Court: An Inventory of Its Civil Case Files and Related Records gr00699
Case files nos. 1-4625, supplemented by selected case files relating to land related matters kept separately by the court, civil transcripts, and judicial ditch files.
Pennington County: Probate Court: An Inventory of Its Probate Case Files (Selected) gr00700
Case file numbers 1-3144; covering cases concerning guardianships and commitments of persons due to insanity, mental illness, senility, and epilepsy. These files were maintained separately from the main set of probate civil case files.
Pennington County: Probate Court: An Inventory of Its Registers of Probate Actions gr00701
Registers of documents filed and actions taken in individual probate, guardianship, and insanity cases. Covering case file numbers 1-6046 and 6050-6710, the entries include title of case, case number, list of documents filed, and citations to volume and page where selected documents are recorded (transcribed).
Pine County: Assessor An Inventory of Its Assessment Rolls gr00709
Assessment rolls for the years 1874-1901 (early years incomplete), 1910-1911, 1920-1921, 1930-1931, 1940-1941, 1950-1951, 1960-1961, 1970-1971, and 1981.
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of Cities and Villages gr00670
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of cities and villages. Some cover a single fiscal or calendar year, others multiple years. For most municipalities, there are only single or sporadic reports. More complete sets are present for many major cities.
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of School Districts gr00703
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of school districts. Some cover a single year; others multiple years.
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of State Agencies gr00674
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of state agencies, generally for the fiscal or calendar year.
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of State Colleges and Universities gr00673
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of state colleges, junior colleges, and the University of Minnesota for the fiscal year (some reports cover more than one year).
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of State Hospitals gr00672
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of state hospitals, mainly for the fiscal year ending June 30 or July 1 (some reports cover more than one year).
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Audit Reports of State Schools and Correctional Facilities gr00671
Reports on the examination of the financial affairs of state schools and correctional facilities, primarily for the fiscal year (some reports cover more than one year).
Public Examiner: An Inventory of Its Financial Reports of Counties gr00706
Financial statements and reports (sometimes in the form of newspaper sections) of the following counties: Anoka, Beltrami, Freeborn, Goodhue, Hennepin, Lake of the Woods, Le Sueur, Mahnomen, Nicollet, Norman, Otter Tail, Ramsey, Scott, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Traverse, and Yellow Medicine. These were created either by or for the county and submitted to the public examiner's office. This is a very incomplete set.

New and Updated Catalog Records

Name/Abstract
Baxter, J. C. Cascade Tunnel construction progress reports, 1926-1929.
Carbon copies of thirteen quarterly reports submitted by J. C. Baxter, vice president of A. Guthrie & Co., to J. R. W. Davis, chief engineer of the Great Northern Railway Company. The reports detail progress on construction of the Cascade Tunnel, and include narrative descriptions, photographs, engineering drawings, tunnel profiles, building diagrams, and camp layouts. The reports were bound by A. Guthrie into a single volume as a presentation copy to H. L. Mundy, president of A. Guthrie & Co.
Parsons, E. Dudley (Ernest Dudley), 1876-1952. Historical manuscripts.
Two typed manuscripts written by Parsons and entitled The march of Minnesota (circa 1940) and The story of the United States (1945), and one holographic and two typed revisions of his Story of Minneapolis (1940s).
Pennington County. District Court. Torrens judgment docket.
Record of documents filed, orders issued, and other court actions in each case.

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