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HISTORY TOPICS

Communism in China

Walter JuddThe struggle for governance of China began in the 1930s and culminated in the victory of the Communists over the Kuomintang and the expulsion of the Chiang Kai-shek administration, long supported by the United States. Minnesota Congressional Representative Walter H. Judd was among the prominent figures whose opposition to the Communist regime helped to shape American foreign policy regarding China. Judd, a medical missionary to China during the time of the 1930s revolution, became a strong advocate for American support of Taiwan and the Chinese government-in-exile there. His and other powerful voices disparaged the communist ideology. As fears of "the Communist threat" grew and swept across the United States, a combination of innuendo and political ambition laid blame at the feet of long-time civil servants, journalists, and scholars who had guided America's China policy. In the process, careers of Foreign Service officers, diplomats, and State Department employees were ruined, and government departments purged in an attempt at purification, and seeds were sown for the search for communists in government during the McCarthy Era of the 1950s.

GET STARTED WITH SECONDARY SOURCES:

  • The Cross and the Red Star: John Foster Travels to the Eighth Route Army, by Richard Terrill.
    St. Paul, Minn.: Asian Pacific Foundation, 1994.
    MHS call number: DS 777.5195 .F67 T47 1994.
  • Know Your Communist Enemy.
    Washington, D.C.: Office of Armed Forces Information and Education, 1954-1955.
    MHS call number: U.S. DOCS D2.13:1-6.
  • Missionary for Freedom: The Life and Times of Walter Judd, by Lee Edwards.
    New York: Paragon House, 1990.
    MHS call number: E 840.8 .J83 E38 1990.
  • Walter H. Judd, Spokesman for China in the United States House of Representatives, by Floyd Russel Goodno.
    Thesis (Oklahoma State University), 1970.
    MHS call number: Microfilm no. 750.
  • Minnesota History index terms that may be useful for this topic:
    • Judd, Walter H., Dr.

PRIMARY RESOURCES:

  • John B. Foster Papers.
    Foster was an Episcopal lay missionary and teacher in China from 1934-1942, he helped operate a Red Cross hospital for the Eighth Route Army behind Japanese lines.
    MHS call number: P778; see the green Manuscripts Notebooks for a detailed list of boxes (there are 7 boxes and 26 oversize items, plus 1 box in Reserve).
  • Walter H. Judd Papers.
    Medical missionary in China during 1930s and member of the United States House of Representatives, vocal in support of Taiwan and opposition to communist China.
    MHS call number: See the green Manuscripts Alpha Notebooks—filed alphabetically under Judd, Walter H.—for a detailed list of boxes and locator numbers (there are 89 boxes and 1 folder in Manuscripts Reserve, but not all relate to this topic), or use an electronic version of the inventory.
  • Luther W. Youngdahl Papers.
    Minnesota governor and U.S. district court judge who dismissed charges against a Johns Hopkins University professor for disloyalty for alleged support of Chinese communists.
    MHS call number: P478; see the green Manuscripts Notebooks for a detailed list of boxes and locator numbers (there are 7 boxes and 16 oversize items). Youngdahl's scrapbooks, 1946-1967, are available on microfilm; MHS call number: M428; see the green Manuscripts Notebooks for a detailed list of reel contents.
    Note:
    Microfilm may be borrowed on Interlibrary Loan.
  • Newspapers that may be useful for this topic:
    • Minneapolis Star
    • Minneapolis Tribune
    • St. Paul Dispatch
    • St. Paul Pioneer Press
  • Check the library catalog for other materials.