Thomas Cowperthwait & Co., Map of the Territory of Minnesota, c1850
Beginning in 1805, Indians in the area that became Minnesota agreed to make concessions of land for specific uses by the U.S. government. In exchange, they received money, goods, and various promises. Land was ceded through treaties, which were agreements between two sovereigns, the Indian nations and the United States government.
By 1858, when Minnesota became a state, almost all Indian lands in Minnesota had been ceded. The U.S. government made the land available to white settlers.