Iron Range
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Mines: Soudan Iron Mine

Location: Soudan Underground Mine State Park, off Minn. Hwy. 1/169, Breitung Township, St. Louis County
Built: 1883-1884
Developer: Minnesota Iron Company
Listed on NRHP: November 13, 1966

The Soudan Mine on the Vermilion Range is the oldest and deepest iron mine in Minnesota. Exploratory drilling and test pitting began in summer 1882, although the Minnesota Iron Company was not incorporated to mine the area until December of that year. Full excavation began in 1883, and the first shipment of ore was in 1884. This set the stage for Minnesota's reign as the country's leading iron ore producer.

In 1880 Charlemagne Tower, a wealthy Pennsylvania industrialist, purchased some 20,000 acres of iron-rich land in northern Minnesota for development. Within two years he had incorporated the Minnesota Iron Company and gained control of the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad to ship ore to his docks in Two Harbors. More than 100 experienced miners were brought in from Michigan to work the Soudan Mine site. Originally seven open pits, the mine suffered frequent accidents from falling rocks, forcing operations underground in the 1890s.

Ownership of the Soudan Mine passed to the Oliver Iron Mining Division of U.S. Steel Corporation in 1901. After shipping ore every year but one, the Soudan fell victim to technological advances and a changing economy. By the time it closed in 1962, the mine had reached a depth of 2,341 feet, with tunnels that ran nearly a mile to the east and west. Today the Soudan Mine is the country's only underground iron ore mine open to the public. Unlike most underground mines, the Soudan, with its solid rock walls, has no supporting timbers in its mineshafts. Near the mine entrance the engine house (1901), crusher house (1904), drill shop (1917) and dry house (1925) still stand.

 Minnesota Historical Society· 345 W. Kellogg Blvd.,
 St. Paul, MN 55102-1906·651-259-3000  Copyright ©  2007. Send questions/comments to

Click to go to larger photo of Soudan Iron Mine
Click to go to larger photo of Soudan Iron Mine
Click to go to larger photo of Soudan Iron Mine
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