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Inventorying, Managing and Preserving Agricultural Historic Landscapes in Minnesota


Contents: Case Studies

Case Studies

    Georgia's Living Places Project
    Sautee and Nacoochee Valleys: A Preservation Study
    Eby's Landing National Historic Reserve
    Kane County, Illinois, Rural Preservation Plan

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Case Studies

Georgia's Living Places Project

Georgia possesses a long tradition of preserving historic landscapes. The Georgia Residential Places Project was developed to study the state's historic residential landscapes, residential architecture and domestic archeology. The two year project updated the state's original domestic landscapes database by documenting a representative nine county cross-section of the state. Information from the sample was combined with existing surveys and a computer analysis of the state's National Register inventory was also conducted. In addition, an extensive literature research was conducted to document the historic development of Georgia's residential landscapes. Results of the data collection and research revealed nine distinct regional forms of historic residential landscapes: work yard, ornamental yard, swept yard, Downingesque, horticultural landscape, New South landscaping, landscape revivals and, landscaped suburb. Identifying and classifying these major residential landscape forms has increased state knowledge of important landscape resources and broadened the Georgia State Historic Preservation Program's (SHPO) scope. The SHPO can now measure the significance of residential landscapes, and assess the impacts of new development and proposed landscape treatments. In addition, the landscape survey has resulted in a public education notebook, a National Register nomination and a forthcoming handbook on Georgia's Living Places. The handbook is for both broad audiences and private landowners of historic properties.

Contact:
Dr. Richard Clous
Survey and Register Unit
Deputy Historic Preservation Office
Georgia State Historic Preservation Office

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Sautee and Nacoochee Valleys: A Preservation Study

In 1980 the Nacoochee Valley was added to the National Register of Historic Places as an historic district. The designation was the first step in the development of comprehensive protective measures for the valley and surrounding areas, less than two hours from Atlanta and facing major landscape changes from resort development, tourism and the absence of effective land use controls. A survey and planning grant from the Georgia Department of Natural Resources in 1981 provided the Sautee-Nacoochee Community Association with funds to develop a comprehensive preservation plan for the Valley. The Sautee Nacoochee Valleys: A Preservation Study is the result of those efforts.

The study included a comprehensive participatory planning process for the two historic valleys, an area of approximately ten square miles located in the mountains of northeast Georgia and possessing unique archeological, historical architectural, scenic and natural resources. It analyzed existing protection mechanisms for significant landscape features, ownership patterns, past and current trends, and cultural, natural and biotic resources through maps, photos, field records and text. The various analyses were combined into three separate composite maps, each identifying areas of preservation values within the broader categories of cultural, physical and biotic resources. These individual values were combined into a final composite map illustrating combined high-quality landscape values. This map served as the basis from which the preservation plan was formulated.

The preservation plan consists of two parts: the first breaks the valleys down into landscape zones ranging from areas of highest preservation restrictions to areas designated most suitable for a variety of uses compatible with conditions. The second part includes appropriate legal and practical techniques to be used by the County, Community Association and landowners in managing the area.

The plan emphasizes individual stewardship, individual support of community-wide preservation; continued educational efforts to inform the community about local preservation; use of protective covenants and conservation easements to protect valley bottomlands; early adoption of county-wide comprehensive zoning and subdivision regulations that promote farming; and special district status for both valleys. The study is a good example of how consistent and thoughtful citizen participation and the use of a range of well-conceived strategies can successfully address both preservation and development concerns.

Contact:
W. R. Crittenden
Sautee-Nacoochee Community Association
P.O.Box 66
Sautee-Nacoochee, GA 30571

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Eby's Landing National Historic Reserve

Located on Whidbey Island in Puget Sound, Washington, Eby's Landing National Historic Reserve was established in 1978 to preserve and protect a "rural community which provides an unbroken historic record from nineteenth century exploration and settlement in Puget Sound up to the present time." The reserve consists of over 17,000 acres of privately owned, unspoiled prairie, uplands, woodlands, saltwater lagoons, and beaches buttressed by high headlands, historic farmsteads, woodlots and a rich patchwork of fields, hedgerows, roads and fences dating from the 1850's.

Intense tourism facilities, and first and second home development surround the area. The National Park Service (NPS) administered the Reserve until 1990, then transferred administration to the Trust Board - a collaborative body representing Washington State Parks and Recreation, Island County, the Town of Coupville and the National Park Service. The NPS continues to provide technical assistance on projects such as wayside exhibits. The Trust relies on productive working farmland, conservation easements, and coordinated educational, interpretative and recreational activities to maintain the Reserve's valuable historic and scenic resources. The Reserve is one of the best examples nationwide of local, state and federal government collaboration in the active protection of important historic resources.

Contact:
Gretchen Luxenburg
National Park Service
Columbia Cascade Support System Office
911 First Avenue
Seattle, WA 98104

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Kane County, Illinois, Rural Preservation Plan

Kane County, on Chicago's fast-growing urban fringe, has a rich heritage of farming dating from the 1850s. It also long history of planning to protect its rural heritage. Its first land use plan (1976) was amended in 1980 to state that the best farmland should be conserved and protected from premature development. In the early 1990s, it had become the fastest-growing county in Illinois. Development pressure prompted the county government to create a comprehensive preservation program to protect its historic architectural resources.

Both the County's 2020 Land Resources Management Plan (1996) and its Historic Preservation Plan (1989) emphasize the importance of preserving working farmland, the agricultural economy, and the agricultural landscape. The 2020 Plan divides the county into three distinct land use areas, based on its historical land use patterns -- the Urban Corridor, the Critical Growth Area and the Agricultural/Village Area -- with well-defined growth management approaches for each. The Agricultural/Village Area protects 50% of the County's land area from premature conversion to other uses and supports the agricultural economy.

The Kane County Historic Preservation Program consists of a set of tools and other components developed to deal with preservation issues at the county level. Tools include a survey of all pre-1945 structures and archaeological sites in rural Kane County, a publication describing the results of the survey, an historic preservation ordinance and a preservation plan. The Rural Structures Survey, completed in 1987, provides basic information about the county's historic resources. Built for Farming: A Guide to the Historic Rural Architecture of Kane County, presents and analyzes the results of the Rural Structures Survey. This book, published in 1991, was designed to educate and entertain professionals, non-professionals, property owners and other interested individuals about the historic resources in Kane County. The county's Historic Preservation Ordinance was adopted in 1988 and created the Kane County Register of Historic Places, the county's list of landmarks, and the Kane County Historic Preservation Commission. Kane County was the first county in Illinois to become a Certified Local Government.

The County's preservation program also includes financial incentives to encourage rehabilitation of historic structures and mechanisms to allow for consensus-building and preservation education. Historical, architectural and financial technical assistance is offered by staff or commission members to owners of historic properties and small communities upon request. Tne County Historic Preservation Commission and the Kane County Farm Bureau established "That Darn Barn" in 1990 as an award program for preservation of historic farm buildings and to generate ideas on returning structures to productivity. "That Darn Barn" continued in 1992 as a demonstration project to educate farmers and other building owners about good preservation practices and adaptive reuse. The project culminated in the publication of That Darn Barn -- A Facelift After 80 Year, which documents typical maintenance and restoration activities.

Contact:
Mark VanKerkhoff, AIA
Director, Development Department
County Government Center
719 Batavia Avenue
Geneva, Illinois 60134
630/232-3480
Web Site: http://www.kane-county.org

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