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The Rest of the Story

A July 1918 photo illustrating the attempt to keep mosquitoes and deer flies away. Negative No. 23222
"Hot tea, hot day, mosquitoes, deer flies, no fish" (caption on back of photograph), July 1918, MHS Collections (Negative No. 23222).

Photo of girl, fan and household refrigerator.
Jane Dornfeld thought she'd solved the heat-wave problem, until her mother discouraged further experimentation. Edina, August 1955. Minneapolis Star-Tribune photograph, MHS Collections.
"From a scenic standpoint, Minnesota bows to none," the state tourist bureau claimed in the early 1930s. It was careful, as earlier Minnesotans had been, to play down the state's less desirable features—frigid winters and hot, mosquito-plagued summers. James E. Calhoun, a member of a United States expedition to Minnesota in July 1823, soon discovered that it was "impossible to peform his duties, unless protected from the mus-quitoes [sic] by some of his company." In 1882 Professor C. V. Riley, speaking about these pesky insects, cautioned, "The bravest man on the fleetest horse dares not cross some of the more rank and dark prairies of Northern Minnesota in June."