The Minnesota Historical Society preserves and makes available a wide range of materials chronicling Minnesota's history and culture. The goals of the Collections Department are to collect and preserve; provide access and interpretation; and engage in education and outreach. This blog is a tool to share these stories and let people know what is happening in the department.
"Meant to Seize U.S. Industries" and "Fail to Reach London" - The Daily People's Press. September 30, 1917
"To Commandeer American Craft" and "Germans are Hard Pressed by Allies" - The Twin City Star. September 29, 1917
As the RMS Carmania reached the most dangerous part of its journey across the Atlantic, delivering American soldiers to the front lines, William W. Dean described the atmosphere on the ship in his diary. Cautionary measures reached their height in anticipation of potential torpedo attacks, and strict rules were enforced to keep panic from igniting in the soldiers quarters. Dean also reflected on the false sense of security that having a gun gave him.
Friday, September 28th:
"We have reached the danger zone! Life belts are to be worn all the time and used as a pillow at night. We are to sleep in our clothes, extra guards have been placed both above and below decks to prevent the slightest violation of any orders and to prevent and quell any panic starters. Any man who violates a regulation or any sentry who permits the slightest violation of any order will probably be punished by death. The officers carry loaded sidearms and in case the whistle blows five times he is not to hesitate to use his pistol on any panic starter. So spoke the commanding officers, Colonel Hunt...It is strange what confidence a loaded pistol gives a man. In an emergency I think I would rather lose my life belt than my pistol...This sure is a nice little pleasure trip."
Citation: William Blake Dean and Family. Papers. P1444 Box 3
This report, sent to Senator Frank B. Kellogg by the Minnesota Commission for public safety, discusses whether the Governor of Minnesota can remove elected officials from office for "seditious utterances" against the war, in reference to Civil War records. The Commission also included a Secret Service report from a citizen who witnessed "Germans" from a rural community near Pipestone, Minnesota discussing their disapproval for the war after hearing a speech given in St. Paul by Senator LaFollette of Wisconsin, the elected official under consideration. The witness reports, "they lauded LaFollette to the skies, and with him knocked the President, Congress, the Government, our part in the War, in fact, everything but the Germans." Senator LaFollette was a vocal opponent of the war, and advocate for free speech during wartime. The Commission petitioned the Senate to expel LaFollette for his inflammatory speech, but press reports indicating that he had "justified the sinking of the Lusitania," as discussed by the group observed by the witness, turned out to be false. The letter from the commission expresses concerns about the effects of LaFollette's (purported) speech "on the Pro-German mind." This report and the ensuing controversy in the Senate are prime examples of the censorship that certain government agencies advocated for during the war. (source: https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/expulsion_cases/101RobertLaFollette_expulsion.htm)
Sept. 28 1917.
Hon. F.B. Kellogg,
United States Senate,
My dear Senator:-
You have doubtless received by this time official copies of the Commission's resolution regarding Senator LaFollette. I enclose herewith for your information a Secret Service report which shows very plainly the affect of LaFollette's speech on the pro-German mind. This report from a little country community near Pipestone is just a squall that shows the way in which that wind blows. [...]
With sincere regard,
"An observer writes from the Southwestern part of the State, September 23:
"I stayed to see if the Germans were going to have a meeting last night out at their country hall, found out that they were and attended it. The young people had a dance from eight to ten-thirty, to hide the real nature of the gathering. After this the old fellows, about thirty in number, decided that the coast was clear, so they got together and began to talk:
"Now that Lafollette had justified the sinking of the Lusitania, they might as well say that it was right in public. They knew now that moneyed men and that Englishman Wilson caused the War, and they must get together to stop it. That they would wait now for further action until Townley came to speak. He would speak at Slayton the 12th and at Marshall the 13th of October. They lauded LaFollette to the skies, and with him knocked the President, Congress, the Government, our part in the War, in fact, everything but the Germans."
BRIEF WITH RESPECT TO AUTHORITY TO REMOVE PUBLIC OFFICERS MAKING SEDITIOUS SPEECHES.
The question for determination in the present case is whether or not the Governor of Minnesota, on the advice of the Commission of Public Safety, has power to remove from office any officer other than the so-called "constitutional officers" of the State, where they in public addresses and also in private conversation make statements denouncing the War in which the Government of the United States is now engaged as unjust and countenancing and in fact encouraging resistance to the draft act by picturing the men who are drafted as martyrs engaged in an unholy cause. The particular officials whose removal is now under consideration are the Mayor and City Attorney of New Ulm and the County Auditor of Brown County. The City Attorney, in a prepared speech, used language of extreme violence. It appears that a copy of this speech is in the hands of the Commission, and according to the Commission's report to the Governor, he, among other things, inquired of his audience to know why our young men should be sent abroad to fight against the German army "as murderers engaged to murder". He suggested to them that before such foreign service was required some way could be found to avoid it.
Citation: Knute Nelson Papers. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 114.I.13.2F Box 26
"French Repel Enemy Assault" and "Soldiers Will Be Escorted To The Train" - The Daily People's Press. September 26, 1917
"Double Air Raid Made Over England by Zeppelins and Airplanes; Fifteen Killed" and "American Soldiers in France Want Tobacco Like They Had at Home" - The Duluth Herald. September 25, 1917
Trench whistles were often used for signaling at the Front. This whistle was used by Norman F. Claussen of St. Paul, Minnesota, during his service in the Field Artillery in both the Mexican Border War and World War I. This type of U.S. Army whistle was used widely by commissioned and non-commissioned officers alike. It is somewhat simply designed, made from brass and covered with a layer of brown finish, then attached to the carrying ring by a brass chain and hook. A cork ball inside allows it to produce noise, and an engraving of “Horstman, Phila” specifies the company and location in which it was produced. The Claussen arrived in Liverpool, England, to begin his military service on September 23rd, 1917.
Citation: Minnesota Historical Society Collections. 1999.74.12
David Backus wrote a letter to his mother from Tours, France, where he was continuing his Aviation training. He comments on his oldest brother's enlistment at Fort Snelling and his other brother's disapproval of the war. He also mentions his training, the weather (a constant topic for the pilot), and his progress in flight school, (explaining why landing is the most difficult skill to master). Finally, Backus talks about his likely plans once his training in Tours is finished.
[...] Am awfully glad to hear that Clinton got into the O.F. Camp at Fort Snelling and especially that he has gone into artillery rather than Infantry. The artillery is a good game. Received a letter from Romayne this morning. He does not approve of fighting and hopes he gets into the Quartermaster department as he wishes. You know by now that I am in Avaitation. [sic] [...] We have been having beautiful weather lately and have been flying everyday. Yesterday I got 3 10 minutes Hops - that is flights. Ought to be in the Sols Class before you receive this letter, and will be out of here inside of 4 weeks with good weather. It will be great sport when I get into the Sols Class, take several small voyages thn we take two triangles, make 3 good sized tours, stop at an English Avaitation [sic] Corp & report. it is a trip of about 70 miles.Go over to English School 30 miles away in 23 minutes, not so slow. [...] From here, (that is unless the big U.S. Aviation school is open by the time I leave here, in that case I will go there.) I go to Avord to take Perfection work on Newports & Spades - they make from 140 to 150 metrs [sic] an hour are very small one man machines. of course I go up in a double one with a Monitlier at first. Then after having gotten accustomed to flying one of them and landing (that is the hardest part and the most difficult of all flying and where most of the accidents occur. you have to land going about 40 or fifty meters an hour & make what is known as a 3 point landing. you see two wheels & the tail of the fusilage [sic] or body. Sounds easy, does it not well some men can never learn how to do it as it requires a very delicate touch and exact sense of distance to land at the right moment with correct amount of speed and machine at just a certain angle. From there I go to the Pou - for Acrobatics - yes just what the word implies learn to loop the loop, side, slip, [verroy?], with motor shut off, tail slip, falling, leaf, twist, nose dive, etc. There to Plessy-Bellview about 30 miles out of Paris for machine gun practice then to the Front. [...]
Citation: David Backus Collection. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 123.D.10.6F
As William W. Dean's journey across the Atlantic on the RMS Carmania continued, he described the other boats in their convoy, including one with many visible repairs from shell holes. Tensions on the ship are began to mount as the convoy neared more dangerous areas on the sea, and the constant worry about the threat of torpedoes inspired extreme caution for the submarine watch.
Our convoy consists of 14 ships filled with troops. Our escort is one armed cruiser way up at the head of the procession, one torpedo destroyer capable of 35 knots an hour, which they say is just out of sight on the starboard side, and the strangely camouflaged boat (previously described as looking 'like a futurist picture with black, yellow, and sky blue stripes all over it'), with 8 6 inch guns. I thought if any boat in the fleet was torpedoed it would be this one. The Germans have been trying to get her for a long time because she sank the Cap Trafalgar and another German raider. This boat had 360 shell holes in her, some of which the patches are clearly visible. [...] I sure will be glad when we hit the other side and this little game of sunning ["running"?] the gauntlet is over. Everybody is so crabby and in such nervous tension that an exchange of blows is not far off. The "submarine watch" goes on, which consists of 6 men stationed at different parts of the boat with high powered field glasses, They are forbidden from taking the glasses from their eyes while they are on watch.
Citation: William Blake Dean and Family. Papers. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. P1444 Box 3