The Minnesota Historical Society preserves and makes available a wide range of materials chronicling Minnesota's history and culture. The goals of the Collections Department are to collect and preserve; provide access and interpretation; and engage in education and outreach. This blog is a tool to share these stories and let people know what is happening in the department.
On this date in 1867 Laura Ingalls (Wilder) was born near Pepin, Wisconsin. The family moved around quite a bit in her youth, living in Walnut Grove, Minnesota two different times. She is remembered for writing the Little House on the Prairie book series based on her family's experiences.
On February 6th, 1918, the USS Tuscania was hit by a German torpedo and sank in the Northern Channel between Northern Ireland and Scotland. This Gold Star Roll is for Fred Allen of Ada, Minnesota, who was aboard. Several newspaper articles were written about his death, as he was the only Minnesotan on board. The articles include information such as a snippet from the last letter he wrote his parents, the date of the memorial service, and his engagement to Irene Edwards of Wisconsin.
Citation: “Allen, Fred Kent” Minnesota Public Safety Commission. Gold Star Roll. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 114.D.4.2F
These full-length drawers were made by Munsingwear, 1940 - 1949. They are made from a knit of rayon and wool, and were to be used as underwear while skiing. Today we would simply call them long underwear.
See them in Collections Online.
"Helen C. Hoerle Expects to recruit 500 cooks for the navy" and "Plan to Destroy Ract" - The Daily People's Press. February 5, 1918
In 2004, the Minnesota Historical Society commissioned two visual artists to depict that year's monumental and ambitious Winter Carnival Ice Palace. This is one of the resulting pieces by Carolyn Swiszcz using acrylic paints.
See it in Collections Online.
This brass artillery shell casing was turned into a vase and embossed with an image of leaves as decoration. The bottom of the casing is stamped "37-85 / PDP's 4". This type of "trench art" was popular during World War I as it was something for soldiers to do during their down time in the trenches. This piece was a souvenir brought home by Harry E. Briggs of Saint Paul, Minnesota.
William K. Fraser casually mentions in his diary that Officers were intentionally exposed to gas so they would know what it was like to breathe it on the battlefield. This seems like a drastic action, as one would think that if someone were to encounter gas they would immediately know it, regardless of whether or not they had experienced it before; but this training was nonetheless done. Additionally, Fraser states that he and his friends made hot chocolate and buttered toast as a snack before bed, indicating that rations must have been plentiful at this time.
Arose at 7. Rather sleepy on account of ridding and early hours. Work all morning. Stayed around the barracks all day. French General Pekin in camp. Officers given gas so as to know what it is to breath. Fellows played balled. Rained a little late in day. after supper Ed Lindell Herb Hale and I made chocolate (hot) Toast and had butter some feed before bed. 9.30
Citation: William K. Fraser Diary, 1917-1919, 1944. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul Minnesota. P1943
The second of February, 1918 is the death date for Alwyn Abbott of Minneapolis. He was killed in action, "blown to atoms" according to his mother, in Toul, France, while part of a volunteer expedition repairing a trestle bridge which was vital for communications. Abbott volunteered early as part of the Canadian Army, British Expeditionary Forces and participated in more battles than most Minnesotan soldiers, including "Ypres, Festubert, Sanctuary Wood, Somme,Courcelelte, Pozieres, Vimy Ridge, Givenchy, Messines, and Neuve Eglise - et. al. Nearly three years of almost constant fighting." Here are excerpts from an undated letter, copied by his mother, written during his time serving as an Engineer in the First Canadian Division Engineering Corps. The letter was published by Abbott's Lieutenant and later featured in a number of periodicals, including American Magazine and The Literary Digest.
Written by Alwyn Abbott after volunteering for service which he knew would cause his death.
Before you read this last message I may ever write you, please recited the beautiful quotation beginning "Those who are wise", which you have so often repeated to me. Feel braced, Mother Dear? I wish this letter could reach you before you hear that I am gone, but that cannot be. I have volunteered for a service which means certain death, or capture by the Huns; and I feel certain that the All-Father will grant death as my portion. I can't tell you what the service is, but a fine bunch of men willingly offered to do what may save the lives of many, and I gladly go to meet death with them. I've never got over my horror at shooting at a man. I entered the engineering corps thinking I'd never have to fight; but sometimes that duty has fallen to me and then I have prayed that no bullet of mine might carry death. You will understand that and also why I so much more joyously give my life tonight than perhaps live to take one tomorrow. You won't mind my dying like a man for the world's welfare. Do you remember, Dearest One, the time we killed the rattler on the ranch? Hal hated the thing and had a real enthusiasm in killing it. I helped kill it, because you said it was a menace to humanity and must be killed, even though we knew it was not to blame for not having evolved beyond the venomous stage. I recall that you said it was a gentleman among snakes, for it never struck without a warning, but that it must be killed. Hal fights the Huns as he killed the snake. He is only a few miles from here and, though I've not seen him, I've heard of him. His men say that he fights like a demon and that he constantly urges men to shoot to kill. He is right and I am wrong in that, but I could never be happy for an hour if I knew that I had killed a man, not even Emperor Bill himself, you know! I should have been born in a woman's body. I never was fitted to be a man. But I have no fear of death, or of the next stage of life, so I shall not die like a coward. [...]
Citation: "Abbott, Alwyn S" Minnesota Public Safety Commission. Gold Star Roll. Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul, Minnesota. 114.D.4.2F
This letter was sent out by the American Red Cross Northern Division Headquarters. It states that the biggest problem for soldiers is homesickness, so individuals are needed to write letters to soldiers who have no one to write to them and to encourage other people to write. It says that men who have not gotten any mail sometimes desert and then have to be killed. The letter calls on all Red Cross chapters to get the address of every soldier within their community and to ensure that each one receives letters and small gifts as reminders that there are people at home who are thinking about them.
February 1, 1918.
Committee on Military Relief-
General Pershing tells us that the hardest thing he has to contend with is homesickness among his men.
An English General has remarked that their soldiers fight with their hearts and their feet.
Our soldiers need and will need all the stockings that the Red Cross can supply, but we can also fulfill another great duty for we are now called on to cure this homesickness among our men. We must let them know personally that loyal hearts are back of them. A man cannot fight as a mere atom, he must be saved from that loneliness that men suffer when nobody from home cares to write them. In every soldier's heart there is a spot somewhere at home worth fighting for, and worthy of the sacrifices that he is making. We can at least, preserve that spirit in the hearts of our men and now allow their morale to die for the lack of it. ..
Citation: American Red Cross, Northern Division, records, 1915-1921. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. P781