The Minnesota Historical Society preserves and makes available a wide range of materials chronicling Minnesota's history and culture. The goals of the Collections Department are to collect and preserve; provide access and interpretation; and engage in education and outreach. This blog is a tool to share these stories and let people know what is happening in the department.
This watercolor on paper painting titled "Left to Right" was made in 1937 by Minnesota artist Bob Brown for the WPA Federal Art Project.
For more information or to purchase a photograph of this item, view this watercolor in our collections database.
When the U.S. entered the First World War, recent German immigrants found themselves in positions ranging from uncomfortable to dangerous. Brigadier General F. E. Resche was just one example of a man caught between his nationality and his nation of residence. General Resche had left Germany for the U.S. as an adult, but both of his parents still lived in Germany, and two of his brothers were currently serving in the German Army. The Auditor of the State of Minnesota, J. A. O. Preus, was sympathetic to General Resche’s situation, and he wrote to Senator Knute Nelson on the matter. Mr. Preus was concerned that German law considers General Resche a deserter, which would warrant execution for treason if he were captured. While Gen. Resche himself had expressed desire to serve at the Front, Mr. Preus believed the U.S. War Department should prohibit him from doing so. He urged Senator Nelson to negotiate an agreement with the War Department that would allow Gen. Resche to remain at home.
July 10, 1917.
My Dear Senator Nelson:
General F.E. Resche, who is the Brigadier General of this State is in an extremely unpleasant situation. He was a German subject, came to this Country after he was a grown man and has risen to the position of Brigadier General in our National Guard. Incidently, he has two brothers in the German Army and his parents still live in Germany. I believe if any officer in our National Guard is entitled to particular consideration, it is General Resche. He is through and through a soldier, and beyond doubt, the best officer we have. He has become Brigadier General entirely on his merits, without any pull on his part. I would personally rather serve under him than any man I know. Mr. Resche wishes to retain his position and go to the front. In the meantime I have told him that as I understand Secretary Lansing's interpretation of the law, General Resche having passed the age of 17 when he left Germany, is there regarded as a deserter and is liable to be shot for treason in the event he should be captured. Under these circumstances I have felt, and so stated to him that if the War Department would take the position that it was unfair to such an officer that he go to the front and if it therefore urged him to decline, he would be content to stay home. I believe that if such a course were pursued that he would not be disappointed, but if he were left at home on any other grounds he would feel that he had rendered a good deal of service to the State and to the Country which would not be appropriated. Under the call of the President, I noticed that the Brigadier Generals have not been summoned to the colors. It is in view of this fact that I am submitting this proposition to you and also because I took a keen interest in General Resche, personally, and greatly admire his patriotism.
Citation: Knute Nelson Papers. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. 114.I.13.2F Box 25
David Backus occasionally had fairly low-key days in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps. On July 10, 1917, he had his usual breakfast of coffee and bread, and he proceeded to perform maintenance on his assigned car. When he was finished, he turned his attention toward weapons maintenance. Backus cleaned a few French sabres and bayonets, and he greased a French carbine, which is a lightweight firearm typically used in highly mobile divisions. Since Backus had relatively few tasks to perform, he and his fellow ambulance drivers took two long walks that day, and Backus even purchased four pounds of chocolate from the nearby Army Commissary. He looks forward to moving once more, this time toward the 66th Division approximately eighteen kilometers outside of Paris.
Rolled out 9:30 Cap coffee & bread. Worked on car - oiled it, cleaned some French sabers & bayonet I have - greased a French carbine & wrapped it up. Took a walk, bought 4 pounds of chocolate from Army commissary. Charlie, Guy, Skinner & Phil Fisher got back from Permission - helped Duckie put the star on our Que de Guerre on all the cars. Milburn, Joe WIlson & Johny Herrels went on Permission. Duckie & I took a long walk after supper, long talk on section, going into American Army, etc. Hope we move - we are going to Shell - 18 kilometers out of Paris, where 66th Division is in Repos.
Citation: David Backus Collection. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. [123.D.10.5B]
"Air Raid on Heart of London Worst of War is Belief" and "French Win Great Victory" - The Daily People's Press. July 8, 1917.
A native of Canby, Minnesota and a resident of Minneapolis, John Bowe had volunteered to serve in the French Foreign Legion soon after the outbreak of war. Like so many others, he was injured in combat, and he was forced to recuperate at a military hospital in Lyon, France. In order to return to the United States, Bowe was required to obtain a variety of official documents, including a “Certificate of Convalescence” reproduced below. This official paper certified that Bowe had “convalesced,” that is, recovered after a period or illness or injury, and he was safe to return home. In addition to his convalescence papers, Bowe required seven other documents, including a steamship ticket, a railroad ticket, and military and civil authorization. Though Bowe returned a hero from the First World War, his actions during the Second World War were far less honorable. During the 1930s and 1940s, he wrote extensively to promote nationalism and anti-Semitism.
Citation: Corresp. and Related Papers, undated and 1675-1919. Bowe, John and Family Papers. Minnesota Historical Society. [P1473]
This is a photograph of "All Women Against All War" anti-war protestors in downtown Minneapolis in July 1938, with the Foshay Tower in the background.
This image forms part of our Minneapolis and St. Paul Newspaper Negative collection. Additional photographs in this series may be available in the library, please view the finding aid.
For more information or to purchase a photograph of this item, view this photograph in our collections database.
On July 6, 1917, the St. Paul Chapter of the American Red Cross received a donation of $3.25 from local young girls. Perhaps inspired by the recent Red Cross Week, which ended on the 25th of June, five girls aged four to ten worked to raise money within their community. They describe their efforts as “a little patriotic play,” and they include each of their names at the end of the document written in careful cursive.
St. Paul Minn
July 6, 1917
To the Red Cross
Inclosed [sic] find check for three dollars and twenty five cents which five of use girls made in a little patriot play we had. We are sending the money to help the Red Cross. Marion Moulden, Marion Mellgren, Marjorie Mellgren, Frances Holmes, Doris Dunlap. The ages of the girls were 4 to 10.
American Red Cross, Northern Division, records, 1915-1921. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota. [P781]
This is a heart-shaped copper ashtray depicting the Saint Paul City Hall. Scratched into the back is "Jan 29 09 / White House / Fire". The inscription may mean the ashtray survived the fire at the White House Department Store on the evening of January 29, 1909.
For more information or to purchase a photograph of this item, view this ashtray in our collections database.
A few days after he last wrote, Philip Longyear sends his mother an update on his progress at his Medical Corps training camp. He describes his first driving “lesson,” which was really a simple exam designed to allow experienced drivers to skip portions of training. In order to pass, Longyear was required to drive around a track, change a tire, and answer basic questions about a car’s mechanical parts. He anticipates receiving much more strenuous training once he arrives in France. In his letter, Longyear also describes a recent camp-wide track meet held at their grandstand. Many members of the public attended the event, and Longyear recounts with pride that his team won the broad jump, though not the overall competition. Unfortunately, one of the runners fainted during the five-mile race, and another Medical Corps recruit rescued him using one of their new ambulances. Upon witnessing this act of heroism, the crowd cheered, no doubt in part because these recruits would soon perform similar duties at the front.
Allentown, Pa., July 5, 1917.
We are getting well settled in camp now and it begins to seem as though I have always been here. I have gotten used to my cot and sleep well. [...] I took my first Ford Lesson yesterday, and got by my exam the first thing. They let anybody who can drive a Ford take the exam right away and not go through the course. It was very simple. I just had to drive around the race track a couple times, reverse, start the engine, stop it, answer a few simple questions about what the carburetor and magneto are for, etc., and put a tire on a rim. I am through now till we get over to France, where they put us through a stiff road test. We will probably have to drive our own car from Bordeaux to Paris in a certain time. The ambulances are chain drive and geared very low. They won't go over thirty. The rear axle and wheels are very strong. The front part is a regular Ford chassie. A bunch of them are arriving every day. They had a chance to used one yesterday. We had an inter-unit track meet in front of the grandstand in the afternoon. I never saw such a crowd in my life. It looked like the auto races at the Minnesota Fair. [...] We won first place in the broad jump. In the five mile race, one of the runners fainted after about three miles and somebody in khaki rushed out with one of the new ambulances and picked him up, to the great applause of the visitors. [...]
Citation: Longyear (Edmond Joseph and Family) Papers. Family correspondence 1908 - 1944, Vols. 1, 2, and 22; A .L860 Box 2