MNHS reference library
The following resources are available at the MNHS Gale Family Library. They are good places to begin your research on the Duluth lynchings and related topics. For further resources, search the library catalog.
Allen, James, et al. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe, N.M.: Twin Palms, 2000.
Chadbourn, James Harmon. Lynching and the Law. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1933.
Dindorf, William Edward. History of the Duluth Police Department. Published by and for the Benefit of the Duluth Policemen's Training School. Duluth, Minn.: Duluth Policemen's Training School, 1920.
Duluth Publishing Co. (Duluth, Minn.). Mob Violence: A Photographic Review and Descriptive Account of the Appalling Lynching of three Negroes by a Revengeful Mob after Alleged Assault on a Young White Girl, at Duluth, Minnesota, June 15, 1920. Duluth, Minn.: Duluth Publishing Co., c1920.
They Chose Minnesota, A Survey of Minnesota’s Ethnic Groups, edited by June Drenning Holmquist. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1981. Buy Book
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Eleventh Annual Report of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for the Year 1920. New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1921.
Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969 [1919 ed.]
Nelson, Paul D. Fredrick L. McGhee: a Life on the Color Line, 1861-1912. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2002. Buy Book
Read, Warren. The Lyncher in Me: A Search for Redemption in the Face of History, St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2008
Sandvik, Glen N. Duluth: An Illustrated History of the Zenith City. Woodland Hills, Calif.: Windsor Publications, 1983.
Shay, Frank. Judge Lynch, His First Hundred Years. New York: I. Washburn, Inc., c1938
Spangler, Earl. The Negro in Minnesota. Minneapolis: T. S. Denison, 1961.
Blacks in Minnesota: A Preliminary Guide to Historical Sources, compiled by David Vassar Taylor. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1976.
Waskow, Arthur. From Race Riot to Sit-in, 1919 and 1960s: A Study in the Connections Between Conflict and Violence. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966.
Wilkins, Roy. Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins. New York: Viking Press, .
Burnside, Tina. “Duluth Lynchings”. MNopedia, (July 22, 2019)
Lawler, Christa. “Author of 'The Lynchings in Duluth' Broke Silence on City's Dark History.” Duluth News Tribune (Duluth) March 30, 2020
Uenuma, Francine. “One Hundred Years Ago, a Lynch Mob Killed Three Men in Minnesota.” Smithsonian.com, June 10, 2020 .
“Duluth Apologizes After 71 Years.” Crisis (New York, N.Y.) Vol. 99, no. 1 (Jan. 1992).
Fedo, Michael W. Duluth lynchings book files, 1978-1979. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Duluth (Minnesota) lynchings of 1920: selected materials, 1920-1976 (bulk 1920-1925) [microform]. Saint Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Historical Society, 2001.
[The entirety of this microfilm has been scanned and is searchable on the Duluth Lynchings Online Resource website.]
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Subject file: Lynching: Duluth, Minn., 1920-1921 [microform]. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, c1987.
[NAACP records relating to the Duluth lynchings]
The lynchings and the black community in Duluth are discussed in several oral history interviews conducted from 1970-1975 as part of the Minnesota Black History Project.
The Minnesota Black Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to people and subjects — including the Duluth lynchings — covered by the state’s black newspapers from the 1880s to 1940s.
The Duluth News Tribune Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to articles appearing in the Duluth News Tribune in the months after the lynchings.
The Duluth Herald Newspaper Index (pdf) is a guide to articles appearing in the Duluth Herald in the months after the lynchings.
Articles regarding the Duluth lynchings appeared in several newspapers, including:
- The Appeal (St. Paul)
- Duluth Herald
- Duluth News Tribune
- Ely Miner
- Labor World. (Duluth)
- Mankato Daily Free Press
- Minneapolis Journal
- Minneapolis Messenger
- Minneapolis Morning Tribune
- Minnesota Messenger (Minneapolis)
- National Advocate (Minneapolis)
- Northwestern Bulletin (St. Paul)
- Saint Paul Dispatch
- St. Cloud Daily Times
- St. Paul Daily News
- St. Paul Echo
- St. Paul Pioneer Press
Use Collections Online to search and view photographs, artwork, and posters from the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, including historical photographs of Duluth and images from the lynchings.